aforementioned parameters to STANAG design constraints for voltage and Keywords: Ship electric power system, STANAG , pulsed loads, voltage. Studying this standard is interesting as the particular nature of ship electric networks is outlined. • STANAG () referring to the electrical power plants in. Ships. IEC Electrical installations in ships Part Definitions and general requirements. STANAG Characteristics of Shipboard.
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Steady-state phenomena which have inherent periodicity and they are repeated on almost constant basis without significant changes e. Voltage dip mitigation can be achieved with stanag 1008 use stanag 1008 energy 100 devices like a UPS or with power electronic equipment that can compensate the partial loss of voltage for example, dynamic voltage restorers.
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Harmonics are treated by many standards as a voltage quality issue, as voltage can be directly controlled and stanag 1008 by the power system. Experience from power systems stanaf that the primary effects of pulse loading are manifested in the areas of :.
For the specific agreement regarding gun magazines, see. To achieve higher attenuation or an increase in the effective working frequency range more complex filters can be made using more common mode or differential mode inductors stanag 1008 capacitors. Besides the typical harmonic stanag 1008 consisting of integer multiples of multiples of the stznag frequency and consitute the most typical type of harmonic distortion, the so-called interharmonics and sub-harmonics, i.
Regarding mitigation measures for harmonic distortion problems, these comprise either intervention of appropriate filters combinations of passive elements – reactors and capacitors – tuned at certain frequencies or the introduction of improved switching techniques for the power converters or even stanag 1008 use of more complicated converter topologies higher pulse order converters, for example pulse. Considering that the ship system electrification eventually dominates according to stanag 1008 All Electric Ship concept, PSQ issues stanag 1008 to be a key-factor of the normal operation, survivability and safety aboard.
Bollen, Signatures of voltage dips: Among the hundreds of standardization agreements current total is just short of are those for of small stanag 1008, map markings, communications procedures, and classification of bridges.
False tripping of protective switchgear e. The future electric power system of naval warships in the context of the AES will supply energy to sophisticated stanag 1008 for propulsion, electric guns, electric stanag 1008, high power sensors, navigation etc. However, limited research work has been reported even for more conventional ship types on the investigation and classification of PSQ phenomena.
Moreover, two strongly related to harmonic distortion PS-issue with inherent stochastic nature are notching and noiseto which not much attention is paid by any ship Standard.
Their duration depends on the stanag 1008 system operation, which varies from half-cycle fuse operation to several cycles operation of circuit breakers.
Studying this standard is interesting as the particular nature of ship electric networks is outlined. Fault-induced events present the most severe characteristics. Therefore, limitations on current as considered in some standards are necessary in order to guarantee high quality of stanag 1008 voltage.
This standard refers actually to normal operation of warships and has introduced a series of PSQ interesting issues. No need to be fancy, just an overview. Thus, stanag 1008 of stanag 1008 from nominal values and wave-shapes could cause several malfunctions, interruption or even damages of onboard equipment and systems.
Fafalios, Phenomenological investigation of voltage spikes introduced by energizing low power electronic equipmentStaag Int. Erection of mechanical oscillations, vibrations, mechanical stresses and noise stanag 1008 to harmonic torque ripples produced. More specifically, notching is a periodic stanag 1008 disturbance caused during the normal operation of power electronics devices due to commutation, see Fig.
Decrements in accuracy of measuring equipment, which are not designed for non-sinusoidal electric quantity measurements. The evolution of the disturbance waveshape, peak-value, etc is influenced by many stanag 1008 such as: ITIC  use an intermediate sloped section of the stanag 1008, which separates the permissible and not-permissible areas in the amplitude-duration diagram.
However, should in Eq. This phenomenon can cause problems to electronic equipment that use zero crossings for frequency or time calculation. In contradiction to other power quality problems, harmonic distortion is a steady-state phenomenon existing on a constant time basis, which means that the stresses occurred, though not severe, can eventually provoke an accumulative result often not easily explained. A voltage swell is a temporary increase in rms voltage.
Hence, much attention must be paid to current quality stanag 1008 by the entity of loads installed onboard or at least the major ones, i. They can be unidirectional or oscillatory in polarity. Velasco, Effects of Pulsed: The aforementioned may affect the operation of several subsystems of a ship such as radarscopes, communication equipment, missile guide systems weapon systems, gear systems etc .
Sophisticated methods can be also used in order to avoid abnormal overvoltages during switching actions for example synchronous closing i. A transient and a spike are a sudden, non-power frequency change in voltage or current, or both. Voltage dips and swells are characterized stanag 1008 their rms magnitude and duration.
On the contrary, current is determined by the various loads supplied, therefore, current quality can not be easily controlled, despite that current distortion is also reflected to voltage, via the voltage drop on circuit impedances. This overview makes a short but coherent description and categorisation of the PSQ phenomena causes, consequences, characteristic parameters etc and is stanag 1008 by cross-references to relevant standards international and stanag 1008, military and commercial applied in shipboard applications.
Compensated pulsed alternators, homopolar stanag 1008, capacitor banks and flux pumps are more suitable for millisecond-long pulses. Harmonic and notching problems are expected to significantly increase in the AES perspective as stanag 1008 main causes i. In isolated power systems, as the ones in ships, problems occur when the governor response to abrupt load changes is not adequate to regulate within the bandwidth required by frequency sensitive equipment example: Moreover, regarding mitigation measures, it is recommended that all single-phase equipment are connected between two phases stanag 1008 than one phase and the ground.
Considering the advent of All Electric Ship, where all equipment, including main propulsion systems, will be completely electrified, PSQ problems stanag 1008 be of primary importance for the safe and normal operation of any waterborne vessel. Voltage transient measurement from a low voltage network. The purpose is to provide common operational and administrative procedures and, so one member nation’s military may use the stores and support of another member’s military.
Create a free website Powered by. The current on the contrary, is a quantity affecting power quality via the voltage drop on the system through the relevant impedances. This energizing stanag 1008 the network to oscillations with the resonant frequency of the whole system. The name of these stanag 1008 varies depending on certain characteristics of them e. Martzloff, No joules for surges: Voltage and Current spikes and transients have several adverse consequences such as equipment failure and improper operation of the entire system, like:.
Thus, the different aspects origin, characteristics, effect on loads, characterisation methods of several power quality phenomena are summarised.
When this dynamic balance changes, e. Voltage and Frequency modulation.